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24 March 2019 : Clinical Research  

Clinical Features of Nephrotic Syndrome with Cerebral Hemorrhage

Mengqi Yang1BCE, Xueying Pan1CD, Zhijian Liang1F, Xiaoqin Huang1D, Meiyi Duan1F, Hui Cai1C, Lixia Yu2B, Li Chen1AG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.912466

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:2179-2185


BACKGROUND: Cerebral hemorrhage has been increasingly reported in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS). However, the clinical features and pathogenesis of NS patients with cerebral hemorrhage remain unclear.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2007 to August 2017, continuous NS patients with cerebral hemorrhage at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were selected. The clinical manifestations, laboratory measurements, and neurological images of these patients were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS: Acute cerebral hemorrhage was recorded in 15 of 10 461 NS patients. The average age of these 15 patients (9 males and 6 females) was 50.87±23.27 years old. Among these 15 patients, conventional vascular risk factors were identified in 8 patients, hypoalbuminemia and proteinuria were recorded in all 15 patients, coagulopathy was observed in 9 patients, increased D-dimer level was recorded in 13 patients, hyperlipidemia was recorded in 11 patients, and impaired renal function was recorded in 9 patients. The hemorrhage developed in the lobe (n=9), basal ganglia (n=3), cerebellum (n=2), and cerebral hemisphere (n=1). Eight patients were in a coma on the day the cerebral hemorrhage occurred, while 12 patients had a poor prognosis after 30 days of hemorrhage onset.

CONCLUSIONS: Poor prognosis was recorded in NS patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Although conventional vascular risk factors have only been identified in 8 patients, biochemical abnormalities (hypoalbuminemia, proteinuria, elevated D-dimer, and hyperlipidemia) were recorded in the majority of these 15 patients. Furthermore, most of the hemorrhages developed in the lobes. Coagulopathy might be the potential pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in NS patients.

Keywords: Cerebral Hemorrhage, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, nephrotic syndrome, Pathology, Adult, Aged, Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products, Hyperlipidemias, Hypoalbuminemia, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Proteinuria, Risk Factors



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Nahum Mendez-Sanchez, Shreya C. Pal
Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937371

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937371


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750