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12 January 2019 : Animal Research  

Evaluation of Iodine-125 Interstitial Brachytherapy Using Micro-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Xenografts

Yangjun Zhu1ABF, Mengjie Dong2DF, Jun Yang2BE, Jun Zhang2CE*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.912590

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:371-380

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy (125I-IBT) is a promising treatment option for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study evaluated the usefulness of micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (micro-PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in assessing response to 125I-IBT in HCC HepG2 xenograft.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve mice with bilateral HepG2 xenografts were divided into 3 equal groups implanted with iodine-125 seeds into the left xenografts with a dose of 30, 50, and 80 Gy, respectively, and the right xenografts were used as internal controls. Before and 28 days after treatment, the 18F-FDG micro-PET/CT was performed. The ratios of left to right xenografts of tumor volume (RTV), maximum standardized uptake value (RSUVmax), mean optical density of caspase-3 expression (RMODcaspase-3), and apoptosis index (RAI) were compared.

RESULTS: The RTV means of the 50 and 80 Gy groups were significantly lower than in the 30 Gy group after treatment (P<0.01) and the RTV means after treatment were lower than baseline in the 50 and 80 Gy groups (P<0.05). The RSUVmax mean after treatment was lower than baseline in the 80 Gy group (P<0.05). The RMODCaspase-3 and RAI means of the 80 Gy group were higher than in the 30 Gy group (P<0.05). The RSUVmax was correlated negatively to RMODcaspase-3 (r=–0.624, P<0.05) and RAI (r=–0.651, P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggest that 125I-IBT inhibits tumor growth via upregulating caspase-3 expression and prompting apoptosis in HCC HepG2 xenografts. The 18F-FDG micro-PET/CT may be a useful functional imaging modality to assess early response to 125I-IBT in HCC HepG2 xenograft.

Keywords: Brachytherapy, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, Fluorodeoxyglucose F18, Positron-Emission Tomography, X-Ray Microtomography, Hep G2 Cells, Iodine Radioisotopes, Liver Neoplasms, Multimodal Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography, Radiopharmaceuticals, Tomography, Emission-Computed

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750