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09 March 2019 : Animal Research  

Histological, Ultrastructural, and Physiological Evaluation of a Rat Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Yongyi Liu1G, Lu Gao2B, Weinong Lv1F, Lin Lin1B, Yi Wang1F, Hailin He3D, Fan Jiang1F, Fan Feng12E*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.913056

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:1806-1813

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to develop a rat model of OSAS and to validate the use of the model by investigating respiratory and cardiovascular physiological parameters and morphological changes by light microscopy and electron microscopy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to the model group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The rats in the OSAS model group were injected with 0.1 ml sodium hyaluronate solution into the upper respiratory tract at the junction between the hard and soft palate. After one month, the model and normal rats were compared using tests of respiratory and cardiac function, and histology and electron microscopy of the lung and cardiac tissue.

RESULTS: In the rat model of OSAS, airway obstruction resulted in the collapse of the upper airway. Tests of respiratory function showed that the oxygen partial pressure, oxygen concentration, and oxygen saturation in the model group were significantly lower when compared with the control group. In the model group, histology of the heart showed cardiac myocyte disarray, and electron microscopy showed vacuolar degeneration and mitochondrial abnormalities. The rat model of upper airway occlusion showed pulmonary and cardiac changes that have been described in OSAS.

CONCLUSIONS: A rat model of upper airway occlusion resulted in physiological and morphological changes in the lung and heart due to hypoxia, and may be used for future studies on OSAS.

Keywords: Cardiomyopathies, Hyaluronic Acid, Sleep apnea, obstructive, Heart Function Tests, Lung, Myocardium, Respiration, Respiratory Function Tests

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750