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08 February 2019 : Clinical Research  

Association of Dietary Potassium Intake with the Development of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Function in Patients with Mildly Decreased Kidney Function: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study

Kwang Ho Mun1ABCDEF, Gyeong Im Yu1C, Bo Youl Choi2BG, Mi Kyung Kim2B, Min-Ho Shin3B, Dong Hoon Shin1ADG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.913504

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:1061-1070

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dietary potassium has negative outcomes in patients with mildly impaired kidney function, while having positive outcomes in patients with hypertension. The association of dietary potassium intake with chronic kidney disease (CKD) development, with presence of hypertension, was studied in the Korean rural population with mildly impaired kidney function.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 3 rural areas of Korea, 5064 participants age ≥40 with CKD stage 2 at baseline were recruited. Patients were classified according to the quartile of dietary potassium intake. Newly developed CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m² at the time of follow-up, and eGFR decline, defined as eGFR decrease >15% at follow-up, were studied. The effect of dietary potassium on CKD development and eGFR decline were studied by Cox proportional hazard models. The association of potassium with blood pressures and C-reactive protein was also studied to examine the underlying mechanisms.

RESULTS: Compared to 8.6% in normotensives, 15.7% of hypertensives developed CKD. The hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) of CKD was lower in high potassium diet only in hypertensives, with 0.60 (0.37-0.99) in the highest quartile. The eGFR decline was also lower in patients with higher potassium diet, with 0.70 (0.50–0.98) in Q3 and 0.54 (0.34–0.85) in Q4. Potassium intake has also been shown to decrease high diastolic blood pressure development (>90 mmHg) in hypertensives at 0.45 (0.25–0.83).

CONCLUSIONS: Dietary potassium was associated with lower risk of CKD development and eGFR decline, and this association was observed only in hypertensives.

Keywords: Cohort Studies, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Potassium, Dietary, Aged, Blood Pressure, Disease Progression, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Hypertension, Kidney, Kidney Function Tests, Middle Aged, Nutritional Status, Potassium, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, renal insufficiency, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Republic of Korea, Risk Factors, Rural Population

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750