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06 May 2019 : Review article  

Exosomes in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Liqun Jiang1CE, Huijie Dong2BCE, Hua Cao1BD, Xiaofei Ji1ABCF*, Siyu Luan1BC, Jing Liu3ACF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914027

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:3329-3335

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptide 1-42 and phosphorylation of tau protein in the brain. Thus far, the transfer mechanism of these cytotoxic proteins between nerve cells remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (exosomes) originating from cells may play important roles in this transfer process. In addition, several genetic materials and proteins are also involved in intercellular communication by the secretion of the exosomes. That proposes novel avenues for early diagnosis and biological treatment in AD, based on exosome detection and intervention. In this review, exosome-related pathways of cytotoxic protein intercellular transfer in AD, and the effect of membrane proteins on exosomes targeting cells are first introduced. The advances in exosome-related biomarker detection in AD are summarized. Finally, the advantages and challenges of reducing cytotoxic protein accumulation via exosomal intervention for AD treatment are discussed. It is envisaged that future research in exosomes may well provide new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer Disease, Biological Markers, exosomes, Brain, Phosphorylation, tau Proteins

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750