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11 April 2019 : Clinical Research  

Depression and Insomnia Are Closely Associated with Thyroid Hormone Levels in Chronic Hepatitis B

Xinyu Huang1AC, Huaying Zhang2B, Chao Qu3F, Yu Liu1D, Cheng Bian1EG*, Yonghong Xu2EG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914444

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:2672-2678


BACKGROUND: Depression and insomnia in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients affect the quality of life, disease diagnosis, and mortality. CHB patients are more likely to have psychological disorders, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. This study investigated the incidence of depression in patients with CHB and sought to identify risk factors for depression and insomnia in these patients, focusing on changes in liver function and thyroid hormone levels.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional cohort study used the Hamilton Depression Scale and Athens Insomnia Scale to assess the depressive and insomnia states, respectively, of 209 CHB patients. Liver function, thyroid hormone levels, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e-antigen, and hepatitis B virus-deoxyribonucleic acid load were evaluated. Liver cirrhosis was assessed by imaging (color Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the correlation among various factors and depression and insomnia.

RESULTS: Subclinical and clinical depressive states were found in 23.9% and 5.3% and subclinical and clinical insomnia in 11% and 35.4% of patients, respectively. Depression and insomnia severity were significantly correlated with low FT3 (<3.5 mol/L). The odds ratios of low FT3 for subclinical and clinical depression and clinical insomnia were 3.07 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.248–7.568), 7.85 (95% CI, 1.839–33.547), and 3.91 (95% CI, 1.417–10.789), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: CHB patients are prone to depression and insomnia. FT3 reduction may be a risk factor for depression and insomnia. In clinical settings, more attention needs to be paid to the mental state of patients with FT3 reduction.

Keywords: Depression, Hepatitis B, Chronic, Risk Factors, Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders, Logistic Models, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Thyroid Hormones

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01 November 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: Factors Driving New Variants of SARS-CoV-2, Immune Escape, and Resistance to Antiviral Treatments as the End of the COVID-19 Pandemic is Declared

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville,

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942960

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e942960


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750