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09 March 2019 : Meta-Analysis  

Association Between Nitrite and Nitrate Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Fei-Xiong Zhang1ADEG*, Yu Miao1CEF, Ji-Gang Ruan1BCEF, Shu-Ping Meng2B, Jian-Da Dong3B, Hua Yin1B, Ying Huang1B, Fu-Rong Chen4B, Zhen-Chuan Wang4B, Ya-Fang Lai5ADG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914621

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:1788-1799

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown inconsistent associations of nitrite and nitrate intake with the risk of gastric cancer or its associated mortality. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the correlation of nitrite and nitrate intake with the risk of gastric cancer.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched for studies reporting effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric cancer in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through November 2018. The summary results of the included studies were pooled using a random-effects model.

RESULTS: Eighteen case-control and 6 prospective cohort studies recruiting 800 321 participants were included in this study. The summary results indicated that the highest (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95%CI, 1.03–1.55; P=0.022) or moderate (OR: 1.12; 95%CI, 1.01–1.26; P=0.037) nitrite intake were associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer. However, we noted that high (OR, 0.81; 95%CI, 0.68–0.97; P=0.021) or moderate (OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.75–0.99; P=0.036) nitrate intakes were associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer. These associations differed when stratified by publication year, study design, country, the percentage of male participants, assessment of exposure, adjusted model, and study quality.

CONCLUSIONS: High or moderate nitrite intake was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer, whereas high or moderate nitrate intake was correlated with lower risk of gastric cancer.

Keywords: Amyl Nitrite, Nitrates, Case-Control Studies, Nitrites, Odds Ratio, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750