Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

27 October 2019 : Clinical Research  

The Effects of Viewing Smart Devices on Static Balance, Oculomotor Function, and Dizziness in Healthy Adults

Donggeon Lee1ABCDE, Soungkyun Hong1EF, Sunhye Jung1EF, Kyeongbong Lee2EF, Gyuchang Lee3ACDEG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915284

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:8055-8060


BACKGROUND: The number of people using smart devices such as smartphones (SPs) or virtual reality head-mounted displays (HMDs) is rapidly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the effects of viewing smart devices, including SPs and HMDs, on postural balance and the development of dizziness in healthy individuals.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy adults underwent static balance measurements at baseline, and after 5, 10, and 20 minutes of viewing the SP and HMD display. Measurements were taken using a force plate and Wii Balance Board (WBB) and included the parameters of postural sway velocity, path length, and postural sway area. A modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) evaluated oculomotor function and dizziness twice for each device, after 5 and 20 minutes of use.

RESULTS: Compared with baseline, the use of smart devices for 20 minutes had significantly increased effects on balance, oculomotor function, and dizziness than shorter use for 10 minutes or 5 minutes in healthy adults. Postural sway velocity and path length were significantly increased after 20 minutes of use of the HMD and SP when compared 5-minute use and baseline measurements (p<0.05). Postural sway area after 20-minute use of the HMD was significantly increased compared with the baseline and 5-minute and 10-minute use of the SP and 5-minute use of the HMD (p<0.05). The SSQ showed that dizziness was significantly increased after 20-minute use compared with 5-minute use of the HMD and SP (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Longer use of smart devices affected static balance, oculomotor function, and dizziness in healthy adults.

Keywords: Cellular Phone, Dizziness, postural balance, Computer Terminals, healthy volunteers, Smartphone, Surveys and Questionnaires, User-Computer Interface, Vertigo, virtual reality, Vision, Ocular

Add Comment 0 Comments


01 June 2024 : Editorial  

Editorial: Concerns as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Virus of the H5N1 Subtype is Identified in Dairy Cows and Other Mammals

Dinah V. Parums

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.945315

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e945315


In Press

Review article  

Applications of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Neuroimaging During Rehabilitation Following ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943785  


Clinical Research  

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in Chinese Patients: A Retrospective Stu...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943681  

Clinical Research  

Effects of the Cold Pressor Test on Popliteal Vein Diameter, Flow Velocity, and Blood Flow in the Lower Lim...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944560  

Clinical Research  

Outcomes of Anterior Lateral Approach and Gerdy's Tubercle Osteotomy for Tibial Plateau Fractures Involving...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943946  

Most Viewed Current Articles

14 Dec 2022 : Clinical Research   1,477,232

Prevalence and Variability of Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E in Patients with Elevated Tryptase Levels

DOI :10.12659/MSM.937990

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937990


17 Jan 2024 : Review article   1,433,627

Vaccination Guidelines for Pregnant Women: Addressing COVID-19 and the Omicron Variant

DOI :10.12659/MSM.942799

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e942799


16 May 2023 : Clinical Research   690,157

Electrophysiological Testing for an Auditory Processing Disorder and Reading Performance in 54 School Stude...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.940387

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940387


01 Jan 2022 : Editorial   50,150

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952


Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750