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25 August 2019 : Clinical Research  

Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Associated Risk Factors in the Population-Based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-Trend)

Lisa Lüdtke1BCDEF*, Clemens Jürgens2BCDE, Till Ittermann2CDE, Henry Völzke23A, Frank Tost1BDE

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915493

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:6383-6390


BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment in developed countries, especially in the older population. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) is a population-based study designed to investigate risk factors and clinical disorders in the general population. In the present study, we analysed the AMD prevalence and risk factors in the north-eastern German population.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2008 to 2012, we collected data among participants ages 29–79 years. The study population consisted of 4420 individuals. Non-mydriatic retinal photographs were taken of 3934 participants. AMD stages were graded according to the Rotterdam Classification System and the International Classification System.

RESULTS: Photographs from 1854 participants were available for grading. The baseline examinations showed small hard drusen (<63 µm, stage 0b and 0c) were present in 10.7% of the participants (stage 0b in 7.5% and stage 0c in 3.2%). Earliest signs of AMD were detected in 28.68% (stage 0b in 7.5% and stage 1b in 21.18%). Late AMD (geographic atrophy and neovascular AMD, stages 4a and 4b) were identified in 0.43% (stage 4a in 0.16% and stage 4b 0.27%). Risk of AMD increased significantly with age and higher body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and weight-waist-ratio. Smoking, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride were not associated with AMD in this study.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AMD increases with age and obesity-associated factors. These results must be verified in the follow-up. Data concerning the incidence of AMD will be available after the 5- and 10-year follow-ups.

Keywords: Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology, Macular Degeneration, Prevalence, Age Factors, Aged, Cohort Studies, Germany, Incidence, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Visual Acuity



12 September 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Treatment with Dual Incretin Receptor Agonists to Maintain Normal Glucose Levels May Also Maintain Normal Weight and Control Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)

Ana Luisa Ordóñez-Vázquez, Sofía Murúa Beltrán-Gall, Shreya C. Pal, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938365

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938365


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750