Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

25 August 2019 : Clinical Research  

Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Associated Risk Factors in the Population-Based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-Trend)

Lisa Lüdtke1BCDEF*, Clemens Jürgens2BCDE, Till Ittermann2CDE, Henry Völzke23A, Frank Tost1BDE

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915493

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:6383-6390


BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment in developed countries, especially in the older population. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) is a population-based study designed to investigate risk factors and clinical disorders in the general population. In the present study, we analysed the AMD prevalence and risk factors in the north-eastern German population.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2008 to 2012, we collected data among participants ages 29–79 years. The study population consisted of 4420 individuals. Non-mydriatic retinal photographs were taken of 3934 participants. AMD stages were graded according to the Rotterdam Classification System and the International Classification System.

RESULTS: Photographs from 1854 participants were available for grading. The baseline examinations showed small hard drusen (<63 µm, stage 0b and 0c) were present in 10.7% of the participants (stage 0b in 7.5% and stage 0c in 3.2%). Earliest signs of AMD were detected in 28.68% (stage 0b in 7.5% and stage 1b in 21.18%). Late AMD (geographic atrophy and neovascular AMD, stages 4a and 4b) were identified in 0.43% (stage 4a in 0.16% and stage 4b 0.27%). Risk of AMD increased significantly with age and higher body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and weight-waist-ratio. Smoking, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride were not associated with AMD in this study.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AMD increases with age and obesity-associated factors. These results must be verified in the follow-up. Data concerning the incidence of AMD will be available after the 5- and 10-year follow-ups.

Keywords: Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology, Macular Degeneration, Prevalence, Age Factors, Aged, Cohort Studies, Germany, Incidence, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Visual Acuity



01 March 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: Global Surveillance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Poultry, Wild Birds, and Mammals to Prevent a Human Influenza Pandemic

Dinah V. Parums

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939968

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939968


03 March 2023 : Database Analysis  

Reinfections from SARS-CoV-2: A Retrospective Study from the Gyncentrum Genetic Laboratory in Sosnowiec, Po...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939452  

09 February 2023 : Clinical Research  

Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life and Mental Health in 729 Medical Students in Indonesia During ...

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e938892

27 December 2022 : Clinical Research  

Effect of Physiotherapy to Correct Rounded Shoulder Posture in 30 Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic in ...

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938926

In Press

21 Mar 2023 : Clinical Research  

Efficacy of Direct Anterior Approach Versus Posterior Lateral Approach for Total Hip Replacement in Patient...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939682  

21 Mar 2023 : Clinical Research  

Intraoperative Hypotension and Its Association with Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoin...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938945  

20 Mar 2023 : Clinical Research  

Management of Unstable C1 Fractures Involving the Lateral Mass: Posterior C1-C2 Screw-Rod Fixation and Fusion

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938600  

17 Mar 2023 : Clinical Research  

Relationship Between Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Axial Length in Children

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939451  

Most Viewed Current Articles

13 Nov 2021 : Clinical Research  

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.932788

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788

30 Dec 2021 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935379

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379

08 Mar 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.936292

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292

01 Jan 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750