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07 September 2019 : Animal Research  

Effects of Left Gastric Artery Ligation Versus Sleeve Gastrectomy on Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

Yi Shen1ABCDEF, Yang Liu1BCD, Shao-Qiu Zheng2BCD, Jiang Han3BCD, Er-Li Pei4BCD, Zhi-Hong Li3ACFG*, Xiao-Yun Xie2ACEFG, Zhi-Qiang Li5CDEF, Ming Luo1ACFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915532

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:6719-6726

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Bariatric procedures such as left gastric artery ligation (LGAL) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have emerged as important procedures for treating morbid obesity. In this study, we compared the effects of LGAL vs. SG on obesity-induced adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and inflammation in diet-induced obese rats.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce obesity. SG, GLAL, or corresponding sham surgeries were performed in anesthetized rats. Inflammatory factor expression in serum and epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were analyzed 4 weeks after surgery. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype transformation were also assessed with Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence.

RESULTS: Both LGAL and SG strongly attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fat accumulation in retroperitoneal and epididymal tissues. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were downregulated after LGAL and after SG by promoting activation of M2 macrophages, despite continued exposure to HFD. Furthermore, both LGAL and SG resulted in increased macrophage infiltration, but did not contribute to phenotype transformation of macrophages to M1.

CONCLUSIONS: LGAL and SG both reduced fat accumulation caused by HFD feeding. Therapies designed to ameliorate the inflammatory response by promoting activation of M2 macrophages may be valuable.

Keywords: Bariatric Surgery, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Insulin Resistance, Macrophages, Obesity, Morbid, Adipose Tissue, Diet, High-Fat, Epididymis, Gastrectomy, Gastric Artery, Inflammation Mediators, Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins, Ligation, Obesity, Phosphorylation, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt

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Ana Luisa Ordóñez-Vázquez, Sofía Murúa Beltrán-Gall, Shreya C. Pal, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750