06 October 2019 : Laboratory Research
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Induce Apoptosis of Fibroblasts by Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome via Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Signaling PathwayJiezhi Dai1DEFG, Hua Chen1AEF*, Yimin Chai1AF
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:7499-7508
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes impairs the healing process and induces apoptosis of fibroblasts, which are thought to be involved in this process. We investigated the possible mechanisms involved in AGEs-induced apoptosis of human dermal fibroblasts.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in fibroblasts isolated from human diabetic wounds. Human dermal fibroblasts exposed to AGEs were used to study the links among apoptosis, ROS, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Signaling mechanisms were evaluated by preincubating the cells with appropriate inhibitors. Cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, BAX, Bcl-2, and NLRP3 inflammasome expression were measured by Western blot analysis. ROS generation, cell viability, and cell apoptosis were assessed.
RESULTS: We observed a higher level of cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3 expression in fibroblasts isolated from human diabetic wounds compared with controls. AGEs decreased the proliferation of cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. The exposure of fibroblasts to AGEs significantly increased the number of cells in early and late apoptosis stages. AGES-induced human dermal fibroblasts showed high expressions of cleaved caspase3, cleaved caspase8, and Bax. Treatment with AGEs induced the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, and ASC. AGES-induced apoptosis was blocked by BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome. AGEs increased the production of ROS in fibroblasts, and its apoptogenic effect was blocked by NAC.
CONCLUSIONS: AGEs cause apoptosis of fibroblasts by inducing the generation of ROS and activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. In vivo experiments are needed to confirm these results.
Keywords: Fibroblasts, Glycosylation End Products, Advanced, Inflammasomes
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