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16 August 2019 : Clinical Research  

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Changes the Metabolomes of Human Colostrum, Transition Milk and Mature Milk

Li Wen123B, Yue Wu123EF, Yang Yang123BEF, Ting-li Han425BCD, Wenling Wang1236B, Huijia Fu27DF, Yangxi Zheng123E, Tengfei Shan8F, Jianjun Chen29BC, Ping Xu123B, Huili Jin123B, Li Lin123B, Xiyao Liu123B, Hongbo Qi123AG, Chao Tong123AEG*, Philip Baker2510DE

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915827

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:6128-6152


BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy complication that is diagnosed by the novel onset of abnormal glucose intolerance. Our study aimed to investigate the changes in human breast milk metabolome over the first month of lactation and how GDM affects milk metabolome.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk samples from women with normal uncomplicated pregnancies (n=94) and women with GDM-complicated pregnancies (n=90) were subjected to metabolomic profiling by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

RESULTS: For the uncomplicated pregnancies, there were 59 metabolites that significantly differed among colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk samples, while 58 metabolites differed in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk samples from the GDM pregnancies. There were 28 metabolites that were found to be significantly different between women with normal pregnancies and women with GDM pregnancies among colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk samples.

CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic profile of human milk is dynamic throughout the first months of lactation. High levels of amino acids in colostrum and high levels of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids in mature milk, which may be critical for neonatal development in the first month of life, were features of both normal and GDM pregnancies.

Keywords: Diabetes, Gestational, Metabolome, Milk, Human, Amino Acids, Body Mass Index, Breast Feeding, Colostrum, Fatty Acids, Fatty Acids, Unsaturated, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Lactation, Metabolomics, Postpartum Period, Pregnancy

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Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e943911


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750