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15 May 2019 : Animal Research  

Rumen-Protected 5-Hydroxytryptophan Improves Sheep Melatonin Synthesis in the Pineal Gland and Intestinal Tract

Fang Zhao1ABCEF, Chen Ma1BCDE, Guodong Zhao1BCD, Gen Wang1BEF, Xiaobin Li1AF, Kailun Yang1AEF*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.915909

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:3605-3616

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Based on the extensive biological effects of melatonin (MLT), it is beneficial to increase the MLT content in the bodies of animals at a specific physiological stage. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a diet supplemented with rumen-protected (RP) 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the pineal gland and intestinal tract MLT synthesis of sheep.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen Kazakh sheep were assigned randomly to 3 diet groups: control group (CT, corn-soybean meal basal diet), CT+111 group (111 mg/kg BW RP 5-HTP), and CT+222 group (222 mg/kg BW RP 5-HTP). The gene expressions of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), and the intermediates of MLT synthesis were observed from the pineal gland and intestinal tract by the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. The 5-HTP, 5-HT, N-acetylserotonin (NAS), MLT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in the pineal gland and intestinal tract were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: The study showed that the pineal gland HIOMT expression (P<0.05), MLT (P<0.05) and 5-HIAA (P<0.05) levels in the 222 mg/kg group significantly increased compared to those in the CT and CT+111 mg/kg groups. In addition, the AADC (P<0.01) and AA-NAT (P<0.05) gene expression levels in the duodenum and jejunum were increased by the supplementation of RP 5-HTP.

CONCLUSIONS: Rumen-protected 5-hydroxytryptophan promoted melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and intestinal tract during the natural light period.

Keywords: 5-Hydroxytryptophan, Intestines, Melatonin, Pineal Gland, Rumen, Sheep, Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase, Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases, Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase, Body Weight, Circadian Rhythm, Dietary Supplements, Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid, Intestinal Mucosa

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750