06 June 2019 : Clinical Research
A Study of Diet and Lifestyle and the Risk of Urolithiasis in 1,519 Patients in Southern ChinaDong Zhuo1AF*, Maolin Li1BD, Li Cheng1BCDE, Jing Zhang1BC, Houbao Huang1A, Yingshui Yao2AC
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:4217-4224
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with the development of urolithiasis in a population in Southern China.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire-based study was conducted between March 2017 to April 2018 that included 1,519 patients in Southern China and included questions on patient demographics, diet, and lifestyle. Patients were divided into the urolithiasis group who had urinary calculi and the control group.
RESULTS: There were 829 patients (54.6%) in the urolithiasis group and 690 patients (45.4%) in the control group. Using a chi-squared (χ²) test, 13 variables were found to be significantly associated with urolithiasis, including age, physical activity, and dietary factors that included high sodium, protein, fat, lean meat, vegetables, pickled food, fluid intake, drinking habits and tea consumption, and frequency and duration of physical exercise. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dietary factors, including vegetables (OR, 0.856; 95% CI, 0.769–0.948), pickled foods (OR, 1.271; 95% CI, 1.030–1.357), and animal protein intake (OR, 1.138; 95% CI, 1.031–1.258), drinking strong tea (OR, 0.793; 95% CI, 0.702–0.897), fluid intake (OR, 0.758; 95% CI, 0.644–0.816), and duration of physical exercise (OR, 0.840; 95% CI, 0.808–0.973) were significantly associated with the occurrence of urolithiasis and were independent risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: High consumptions of pickled foods and animal protein were the main risk factors for the development of urolithiasis in a population of southern China, but high fluid intake with a preference for strong tea, a diet of vegetables, and physical exercise were protective factors.
Keywords: Epidemiology, Food Habits, Life Style, Risk Factors, Urinary Calculi, Adolescent, Aged, Alcohol Drinking, Case-Control Studies, Diet, Drinking, Feeding Behavior, Meat, Middle Aged, Surveys and Questionnaires, urolithiasis, Vegetables
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