21 October 2019 : Animal Research
Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:7872-7881
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a kind of abnormal mineralized bone which usually occurs in muscle, tendon, or ligament. There are currently no effective drugs for the treatment and prevention of HO. Developing effective drugs that can inhibit HO is of profound significance and would provide new strategies for clinical treatment of this disease. The present investigation evaluated the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen against HO.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using an Achilles tendon trauma-induced HO female mice model, we screened different doses of tamoxifen (1, 3, and 9 mg/kg) in mice to determine the optimal dosage on the inhibition of the HO formation. The curative effect of tamoxifen was also illustrated at different HO progression stages including inﬂammation, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and HO maturation.
RESULTS: Heterotopic bone was formed with typical endochondral ossification in Achilles tendons 6 weeks after surgery and continued to enlarge up to 12 weeks. The formation of HO was significantly inhibited with the treatment of tamoxifen at the dosage of 9 mg/kg, whereas 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg did not reduce HO bone volume remarkably. The progression of HO was both attenuated by tamoxifen from Day 1 and Week 4 post-surgery, whereas no inhibitory effect was shown at the osteogenesis and maturation stages treated with tamoxifen.
CONCLUSIONS: Tamoxifen exerts an inhibitory effect on the heterotopic bone progression at inﬂammation and chondrogenesis stages, with the TGF-β signaling pathway suppressed following the increase in estrogen receptor α activity.
Keywords: Achilles Tendon, Estrogens, Ossification, Heterotopic, tamoxifen, Bone and Bones, China, Chondrogenesis, Disease Progression, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Muscles, Osteogenesis, Tendon Injuries
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