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23 October 2019 : Animal Research  

Effect and Mechanism of the Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (Btk) Inhibitor Ibrutinib on Rat Model of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Xuedong Yang1CG, Zhenhao Cao1BE, Peigang Wu2DF, Zhong Li1AE*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.916950

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:7951-7957


BACKGROUND: Diabetes causes damage to the soft tissue and bone structure of the foot, referred to as “diabetic foot”. Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor, and the role and mechanism of ibrutinib on the diabetic foot have not been elucidated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wister rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, model group, and ibrutinib group. After 14 days, the ulcer wound size of each group was measured, and the ulcer healing rate was calculated. The level of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze the changes of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end product/NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) pathway was detected by western blot.

RESULTS: Blood glucose, blood lipids, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were increased in the model group, together with increased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, as well as TLR2 and TLR4 expression, and there were significant differences compared with the control group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the model group showed decreased VEGF expression and increased expression of RAGE and NF-κB. However, ibrutinib reduced blood sugar, blood lipids, creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels, inhibited the secretion of inflammatory factors, promoted ulcer healing, improved ulcer healing rate, decreased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, RAGE, and NF-κB, and increased VEGF expression; there were significant differences in the ibrutinib group compared with the model group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The Btk inhibitor ibrutinib can upregulate VEGF expression, inhibit the expression of TLRs, inhibit the secretion of inflammatory factors, and promote the healing of diabetic foot ulcer possibly by regulating the RAGE/NF-κB pathway.

Keywords: Rage, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A, Adenine, Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase, Cytokines, Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Foot, Piperidines, Pyrazoles, Pyrimidines, Rats, Wistar, Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products, Toll-Like Receptors

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01 September 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: A Rapid Global Increase in COVID-19 is Due to the Emergence of the EG.5 (Eris) Subvariant of Omicron SARS-CoV-2

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942244

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e942244


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750