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02 September 2019 : Animal Research  

Drilling Condition Identification Based on Sound Pressure Signal in Anterior Cervical Discectomy Surgery

Fuqiang Shao12ABCDEF, Muyao Tang3BCDEF, He Bai4BCF, Yuan Xue12AEG*, Yu Dai5ABDG, Jianxun Zhang5AG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.917676

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:6574-6580


BACKGROUND: In anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery, drilling operation causes a high risk of tissue injury. This study aimed to present a novel feedback system based on sound pressure signals to identify drilling condition during ACDF.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: ACDF surgery was performed on the C4/5 segments of 6 porcine cervical specimens. The annulus fibrosus, endplate cartilage, sub-endplate cortical bone, and posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) were drilled until penetration using a 2-mm high-speed burr. Sound pressure signals were collected using a microphone and dynamic signal analyzer. The recorded signals of different tissues were proceeded with lifting wavelet transform for extracting harmonic components. The frequencies of harmonic components are 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 times higher than the motor frequency. The magnitude of harmonic components was calculated to identify different drilling conditions, along a broad spectrum of frequencies (1–5 kHz). For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) and post hoc test (Dunnett’s T3) were performed.

RESULTS: Very good demarcation was found among the signal magnitudes of different drilling conditions. Different drilling conditions do not present the same rate of variation of frequency. Differences in magnitude among all drilling conditions were statistically significant at certain frequency points (p<0.05). In 3 cases, one tissue could not be identified with respect to another (annulus fibrosus and endplate cartilage at 2 kHz, PLL and penetration at 3 kHz, annulus fibrosus and sub-endplate cortical bone at 5 kHz, p>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Sound pressure signals may provide an auxiliary feedback system for enhancing drilling operation in ACDF surgery, especially in minimally invasive surgery.

Keywords: Cervical Vertebrae, Decompression, Intraoperative Complications, Sound, Spinal Cord Compression, Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive, Diskectomy, Pressure, Swine, Wavelet Analysis



12 September 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: Treatment with Dual Incretin Receptor Agonists to Maintain Normal Glucose Levels May Also Maintain Normal Weight and Control Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)

Ana Luisa Ordóñez-Vázquez, Sofía Murúa Beltrán-Gall, Shreya C. Pal, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938365

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938365


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750