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21 November 2019 : Laboratory Research  

PTEN-Induced Putative Kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy Protects PC12 Cells Against Cisplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity

Yao Zhang1ABE, Qingzhen Liu2ABC, Yongle Li3CEF, Caijuan Li1CFG, Yunhe Zhu1F, Fan Xia1CF, Shiqin Xu1ADG*, Weiyan Li4ADFG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.918536

Med Sci Monit 2019; 25:8797-8806

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, a dose-dependent adverse effect of cisplatin, involves mitochondrial dysfunction. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy removes damaged mitochondria under various pathological conditions. The objective of this study was to determine mitophagy status and its effects on mitochondrial function and neuronal cell damage after cisplatin treatment using an in vitro model of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: PC12 cells were transfected with Parkin or Parkin siRNA using lentiviral particles and Lipofectamine 3000™, respectively, and then were exposed to 10 μM cisplatin. The expression of autophagic proteins was measured by Western blot analysis. Mitophagy in PC12 cells was detected by confocal microscopy analysis of mitochondria-lysosomes colocalization and autophagic flux. The effects of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy on cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity were assessed via mitochondrial function, neuritic length, nuclear diameter, and apoptosis.

RESULTS: Cisplatin activated PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in PC12 cells. Autophagic flux analysis revealed that cisplatin inhibits the late stage of the autophagic process. The knockdown of Parkin suppressed cisplatin-induced mitophagy, aggravating cisplatin-induced depolarization of mitochondria, cellular ATP deficits, reactive oxygen species outburst, neuritic shortening, nuclear diameter reduction, and apoptosis, while Parkin overexpression enhanced mitophagy and reversed these effects.

CONCLUSIONS: PINK1/Parkin-regulated mitophagy can protect against cisplatin-related neurotoxicity, suggesting therapeutic enhancement of mitophagy as a potential intervention for cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathies. The interference of cisplatin with autophagosome-lysosome fusion may be partly responsible for cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

Keywords: Cisplatin, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial Degradation, Peripheral Nervous System Diseases, Neurotoxicity Syndromes, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Protein Kinases, RNA, Small Interfering, Transfection

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750