Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

30 March 2020 : Editorial  

Emerging Roles of Blood-Borne Intact and Respiring Mitochondria as Bidirectional Mediators of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Processes

Tobias Esch1ABCDEF*, George B. Stefano2ABCDEF, Radek Ptacek2ABCDEF, Richard M. Kream2ABCDEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.924337

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e924337

Abstract

Over the past two decades, a major goal of our research group has been elucidation of the functional roles of several key regulatory molecules in proinflammatory preconditioning involved in the pathophysiology of seemingly diverse human disease states. By necessity, operational definitions of proinflammation must be intrinsically fluid based on recent advances in our understanding of complex regulation of innate and adaptive immune processes. Similar to systemic acute stress, a physiological proinflammatory state appears to be a key autoregulatory mechanism for maintaining optimal immune surveillance against potentially infective microorganisms, viruses, and toxic xenobiotics. Perturbation of normative biochemical and molecular mosaics of ongoing proinflammatory tone, exemplified by altered expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their respective protein complexes, is hypothesized to be a common modality for initiation and full expression of various autoimmune diseases and comorbid syndromes evolving from metabolic and metastatic diseases. The newly reported presence of “free” (extracellular) mitochondria exponentially adds to our hypothesis that in conditions of acute stress, a new source of potential ATP producers may be recruited and present to deal with such an acute process. Furthermore, given this phenomenon, an early surveillance role and a dysfunctional chronic inflammation-prolonging component may also be surmised.

Keywords: Inflammation, Mitochondria, Morphine, Nitric Oxide, Stress, Physiological, Alarmins, Animals, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Autoimmune Diseases, Extracellular Space, Humans, Inflammation Mediators

Add Comment 0 Comments

Editorial

01 June 2024 : Editorial  

Editorial: Concerns as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Virus of the H5N1 Subtype is Identified in Dairy Cows and Other Mammals

Dinah V. Parums

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.945315

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e945315

0:00

In Press

Review article  

Applications of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Neuroimaging During Rehabilitation Following ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943785  

0:00

Clinical Research  

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in Chinese Patients: A Retrospective Stu...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943681  

Clinical Research  

Effects of the Cold Pressor Test on Popliteal Vein Diameter, Flow Velocity, and Blood Flow in the Lower Lim...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.944560  

Clinical Research  

Outcomes of Anterior Lateral Approach and Gerdy's Tubercle Osteotomy for Tibial Plateau Fractures Involving...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943946  

Most Viewed Current Articles

14 Dec 2022 : Clinical Research   1,494,766

Prevalence and Variability of Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E in Patients with Elevated Tryptase Levels

DOI :10.12659/MSM.937990

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937990

0:00

17 Jan 2024 : Review article   1,476,009

Vaccination Guidelines for Pregnant Women: Addressing COVID-19 and the Omicron Variant

DOI :10.12659/MSM.942799

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e942799

0:00

16 May 2023 : Clinical Research   690,201

Electrophysiological Testing for an Auditory Processing Disorder and Reading Performance in 54 School Stude...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.940387

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940387

0:00

01 Jan 2022 : Editorial   50,159

Editorial: Current Status of Oral Antiviral Drug Treatments for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Non-Hospitalized Pa...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935952

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e935952

0:00

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750