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Biomarkers of Activity-Dependent Plasticity and Persistent Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission in Alzheimer Disease: A Review of the Current StatusMarcin Warpechowski1ADEF, Jędrzej Warpechowski2AEF*, Agnieszka Kulczyńska-Przybik3AEF, Barbara Mroczko 34AEF
Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e938826
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by complex pathological processes involving neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and synaptic dysfunction. Understanding the exact neurobiological mechanisms underlying AD pathology may help to provide a biomarker for early diagnosis or at least for assessment of vulnerability to dementia development. Neural plasticity is defined as a capability of the brain to respond to alterations including aging, injury, or learning, with a crucial role of synaptic elements. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are important in regulating synaptic connections between neural cells in functional plasticity. Synaptic loss and impairment of the brain’s plasticity in AD leads to cognitive impairment, and one of important roles of synaptic biomarkers is monitoring synaptic dysfunction, response to treatment, and predicting future development of AD. Synaptic biomarkers are undoubtedly very promising in developing novel approach to AD treatment and control, especially in the era of aging of societies, which is one of the most common risk factor of AD. Implementing a widespread measurement of synaptic biomarkers of AD will probably be crucial in early diagnosis of AD, early therapeutic intervention, monitoring progression of the disease, or response to treatment. One of the most important challenges is finding a biomarker whose blood concentration correlates with its level in the central nervous system (CNS). This review aims to present the current status of biomarkers of activity-dependent plasticity and persistent enhancement of synaptic transmission in Alzheimer disease.
Keywords: Alzheimer Disease, cognitive dysfunction, Cerebrospinal Fluid
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