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11 January 2016 : Clinical Research  

Expression of Tumor-Related Macrophages and Cytokines After Surgery of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients and its Implications

Jianguo WangBE, Hongwu ChenDF, Xingwu ChenBG, Hui LinAC

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.895386

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:115-120


BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has negative expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER), and low expression of human epithelial growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). This study aimed to investigate the expressional profile of cytokines in TNBC patients with significant expression of macrophages.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) S-P staining method was used to detect the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) marker CD68 expression in 48 cases of TNBC samples. The correlation between CD68 expression and prognosis was analyzed. Expressions of key cytokines – interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 (CCL-5), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) – were quantified by RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: Thirty-four out of 48 TNBC samples (71.4%) had CD68-positive expression. IL-6 and CCL-5 were up-regulated in high-infiltrated tumors when compared to low-infiltrated samples. Other cytokines had no significant difference regarding the expression level across groups.

CONCLUSIONS: TAMs were up-regulated in most TNBC patients after the surgery. Its expression suggested unfavorable prognosis, especially in the high-infiltrated group. Those tumors with more macrophage also had elevated expression of cytokine IL-6 and chemotactic factor CCL-5, both of which have potency to be clinical index and drug target for TNBC.

Keywords: Antigens, CD - metabolism, Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic - metabolism, Chemokine CCL5 - metabolism, Chemokine CXCL2 - metabolism, Cytokines - metabolism, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Gene Expression Profiling, Interleukin-6 - metabolism, Interleukins - metabolism, Macrophages - cytology, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms - metabolism



12 September 2022 : Editorial  

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Ana Luisa Ordóñez-Vázquez, Sofía Murúa Beltrán-Gall, Shreya C. Pal, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938365

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938365


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750