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11 January 2016 : Clinical Research  

Expression of Tumor-Related Macrophages and Cytokines After Surgery of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients and its Implications

Jianguo WangBE, Hongwu ChenDF, Xingwu ChenBG, Hui LinAC

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.895386

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:115-120


BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has negative expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER), and low expression of human epithelial growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). This study aimed to investigate the expressional profile of cytokines in TNBC patients with significant expression of macrophages.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) S-P staining method was used to detect the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) marker CD68 expression in 48 cases of TNBC samples. The correlation between CD68 expression and prognosis was analyzed. Expressions of key cytokines – interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5 (CCL-5), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) – were quantified by RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: Thirty-four out of 48 TNBC samples (71.4%) had CD68-positive expression. IL-6 and CCL-5 were up-regulated in high-infiltrated tumors when compared to low-infiltrated samples. Other cytokines had no significant difference regarding the expression level across groups.

CONCLUSIONS: TAMs were up-regulated in most TNBC patients after the surgery. Its expression suggested unfavorable prognosis, especially in the high-infiltrated group. Those tumors with more macrophage also had elevated expression of cytokine IL-6 and chemotactic factor CCL-5, both of which have potency to be clinical index and drug target for TNBC.

Keywords: Antigens, CD - metabolism, Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic - metabolism, Chemokine CCL5 - metabolism, Chemokine CXCL2 - metabolism, Cytokines - metabolism, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Gene Expression Profiling, Interleukin-6 - metabolism, Interleukins - metabolism, Macrophages - cytology, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms - metabolism



01 January 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: Current Status of Two Adjuvanted Malaria Vaccines and the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategy to Eradicate Malaria by 2030

Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939357

Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e939357


26 January 2023 : Editorial  

Editorial: The XBB.1.5 (‘Kraken’) Subvariant of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 and its Rapid Global Spread

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.939580  

19 January 2023 : Clinical Research  

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750