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22 January 2017 : Laboratory Research  

TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Suppresses Cell Apoptosis in Cerebral Ischemic Stroke Rats

Haiping Zhu1BC, Qunfeng Gui2D, Xiaobo Hui3C, Xiaodong Wang3CF, Jian Jiang3BD, Lianshu Ding3CDE, Xiaoyang Sun3BF, Yanping Wang3AG*, Huaqun Chen2A

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.899195

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:366-376

Abstract

BACKGROUND: We desired to observe the changes of transforming growth factor-β1/drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein (TGF-β1/Smad3) signaling pathway in the hippocampus region of cerebral ischemic stroke rats so that the effects of this pathway on nerve cells can be investigated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ischemic stroke models were built by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 inhibitors were injected into rat models while TGF-β1, TGF-β1 siRNA, Smad3, and Smad3 siRNA were transfected into cells. Infarct sizes were measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, while the apoptosis rate of cells were calculated by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining. Levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, and Bcl-2 were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical, and Western blot analysis.

RESULTS: The expressions of TGF-β1/Smad3 signal pathway were significantly increased in both model rats and BV2 cells, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated (P<0.05). The TGF-β1/Smad3 signal pathway exhibited protective effects, including the down-regulation of infarction size in cerebral tissues and the down-regulation of apoptosis rate of BV2 cells by increasing the expression of Bcl-2 (P<0.05). In addition, these effects could be antagonized by the corresponding inhibitors and siRNA (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway was up-regulated once cerebral ischemic stroke was simulated. TGF-β1 may activate the expression of Bcl-2 via Smad3 to suppress the apoptosis of neurons.

Keywords: CA1 Region, Hippocampal, Genes, bcl-2, Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery, Latent TGF-beta Binding Proteins

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750