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15 May 2017 : Clinical Research  

Potential Pathogenesis and Biomarkers of Kidney Cancer-Related Stroke

Haihong Jiang1BC, Chao Qin1FG, Daobin Cheng1DF, Qiuhong Lu1CD, Gelun Huang1BD, Dacheng Wang2BC, Hong Yang3FG, Zhijian Liang1A*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.904710

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:2292-2298

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Stroke risk and stroke recurrence are increased in cancer patients, but the pathogenesis and biomarkers of kidney cancer-related stroke (KCS) are generally unclear. The aim of the present research was to investigate the pathogenesis and plasma biomarkers of kidney cancer-related stroke.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on acute stroke patients with kidney cancer (KC) who were admitted to the hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. A total of 106 patients with KCS (active KC patients with acute stroke but without conventional vascular risks) were identified. In addition, 106 age- and sex-matched patients with KC alone were recruited.

RESULTS: KCS patients had higher plasma D-dimer, cancer antigen (CA) 125, and CEA levels and greater proteinuria levels than did KC patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of stroke in patients with KC increased independently by 0.8% (odds ratio [OR] 1.008; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002, 1.013; p=0.004) with a 1 ng/mL increase in D-dimer levels, by 1.2% (OR 1.012; 95% CI 1.007, 1.018; p=0.000) with a 1 U/mL increase in CA125, by 2.5% (OR 1.025; 95% CI 1.012, 1.038; p=0.000) with a 1 U/mL increase in CEA by 1.4% (OR 1.014; 95% CI 1.005, 1.024; p=0.004) with a 1 mg increase in urine protein in 24 hours.

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma D-dimer, CA125 and CEA levels, and increased urine protein levels might lead to hypercoagulability and then KCS; however, they may also be biomarkers of KCS.

Keywords: Biological Markers, Kidney Neoplasms, Pathology, Stroke

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750