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17 April 2020 : Animal Research  

Effects of Long-Term High-Fat Diet and Its Reversal on Lipids and Lipoproteins Composition in Thoracic Duct Lymph in Pigs

Angelika Chachaj1CDEF, Marie-Anne Verny2CDEF, Katarzyna Drożdż13B, Robert Pasławski34B, Urszula Pasławska345AB, Adrian Janiszewski36B, Anna Wojakowska7C, Maciej Karczewski8C, Agnieszka Gomułkiewicz39BC, Irmina Fortunato39BC, Aleksandra Piotrowska39BC, Karolina Jabłońska39BC, Magdalena Chmielewska310BC, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów311B, Piotr Dzięgiel3912ACD, Dariusz Janczak313B, Andrzej Mazur2ACDE, Andrzej Szuba13ABCDEFG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.917221

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e917221

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a long-term high-fat diet on lipids and lipoproteins composition in thoracic duct lymph in pigs.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined lymph taken from the thoracic duct from 24 female white sharp-ear pigs, divided into 3 experimental groups fed different diets for 12 months: (a) the control group, fed the standard balanced diet; (b) the HFD group, fed an unbalanced, high-fat diet, and (c) the reversal diet group (RD), fed an unbalanced, high-fat diet for 9 months and then a standard balanced diet for 3 months.

RESULTS: Lymph analysis after 12 months of fixed diets revealed significantly higher concentration of proteins in the HFD group in comparison to the control and RD groups. Examination of lymph lipoproteins fractions showed that the high-fat diet in the HFD group in comparison to control group caused an increase in cholesterol, phospholipids, and proteins content within HDL and chylomicrons. There were also more proteins within HDL in the HFD group in comparison to the RD group and more triglycerides within chylomicrons in the HFD group in comparison to the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: A long-term high-fat diet resulted in changed structure of HDL and chylomicrons in the thoracic duct lymph. Alterations in HDL composition suggest that a high-fat diet enhances reverses cholesterol transport. Changes in chylomicrons structure show the adaptation to more intense transport of dietary fat from the intestine to the liver under the influence of a high-fat diet. Reversal to a standard balanced diet had the opposite effects.

Keywords: Diet, High-Fat, Lipids, Lipoproteins, Lymphatic System, Cholesterol, Dietary Fats, Lipid Metabolism, Lipoproteins, HDL, Lipoproteins, LDL, Liver, Lymph, Swine, Thoracic Duct, Triglycerides

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750