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13 June 2020 : Clinical Research  

Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of 27 Patients with Childhood Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia

Haixiao Qi1ACE, Yan Mao1BCD, Qian Cao1BF, Xingzhen Sun2BC, Wenxia Kuai2BF, Junhong Song3AE, Li Ma2BC, Ze Hong2BF, Jian Hu2BCD, Guoping Zhou1AEG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.922662

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e922662

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of childhood acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of 27 cases of childhood AMKL admitted from November 2009 to July 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The survival analysis and prognostic factors were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method.

RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 26.4 months in 27 cases, and the complete response rate was 92.31% after 2 chemotherapy courses. Eight patients underwent bone marrow transplantation after 3–6 courses. Five patients died after transplantation, 4 of whom died due to recurrence after transplantation. Of the 27 patients, 10 developed recurrence (37.04%), and 8/10 had recurrence within 1 year. The 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rates were (47±12)% and (36±14)%, respectively. Of the 27 AMKL cases, the 3 with Down syndrome (DS-AMKL) all survived after treatment, and the 3-year overall survival rate was 100%. However, of the other 24 AMKL patients without Down syndrome (non-DS-AMKL), 6 died and 6 abandoned treatment, and the 3-year overall survival rate was only 50%. Univariate analysis showed that 3-year overall survival rate was not correlated to gender, age, number of newly diagnosed white blood cells, karyotype, remission after 2 courses of treatment, and transplant after 3 courses of treatment of childhood AMKL cases. Nevertheless, recurrence and remission after 2 courses of treatment were significantly correlated with 3-year overall survival rate.

CONCLUSIONS: Children with non-DS-AMKL have a high degree of malignancy and are prone to early recurrence with a poor prognosis, whereas the prognosis of DS-AMKL is relatively good. Recurrence after treatment and remission after 2 courses of treatment are important factors influencing the prognosis of childhood AMKL. Recurrence after transplantation is the leading cause of death in transplantation patients.

Keywords: Hospitals, Pediatric, Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute, Anemia, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Child, Preschool, Down Syndrome, Fever, Hemorrhage, Hepatomegaly, Infant, karyotype, Splenomegaly

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
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