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05 January 2024 : Clinical Research  

Evaluation of Reliability of the Luna EMG Rehabilitation Robot to Assess Proprioception in the Upper Limbs in 102 Healthy Young Adults

Justyna Leszczak ORCID logo1ABDEF*, Andżelina Wolan-Nieroda ORCID logo1BCF, Mariusz Drużbicki ORCID logo1DEF, Anna Poświata ORCID logo2AEF, Michał Mikulski ORCID logo2AEF, Anna Roksela ORCID logo3AEF, Agnieszka Guzik ORCID logo4ADEF

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942439

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e942439



BACKGROUND: Proprioception, the body’s ability to perceive its own position and movement, is fundamental for motor control and coordination. Reliable assessment tools are essential, particularly for conditions affecting proprioceptive function. This study aimed to evaluate the external and internal compliance of the Luna EMG ­multifunction robotic device in assessing proprioception.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 102 healthy students (31 men and 71 women; mean age 22.2±1.46 years), assessing proprioception using the Luna EMG for the upper limbs. Two investigators conducted measurements, which were repeated after 2 weeks under identical conditions.

RESULTS: Based on the identified values of the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (ICC=0.969-0.997), which is a key measure of agreement between 2 assessments, the study shows a high agreement of measurements both between investigators (for right hand: P=0.3484 [Exam 1]; P=1.0000 [Exam 2]; for left hand: P=0.1092 [Exam 1]; P=0.7706 [Exam 2]) and between the examinations (for right hand: 0.1127 [Investigator 1]; 0.2113 [Investigator 2]; for left hand: P=0.0087 [Investigator 1]; P=0.1466 [Investigator 2]). The Bland-Altman analysis showed very small inter-rater deviations, approximately 0.05° in the first examination for the left side and 0.04° for the right side. The highest deviation between the examinations, amounting to 0.08°, was identified for the left side.

CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that the Luna EMG multifunction robotic device enables a reliable evaluation of upper limb proprioception. Measurements performed using this device show high internal and external consistency in the assessment of the proprioceptive senses of the upper limb in 102 healthy young adults.

Keywords: Proprioception, Reproducibility of Results, Robotics, Rehabilitation

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01 February 2024 : Editorial  

Editorial: Global Health Concerns as Vaccine-Preventable Infections Including SARS-CoV-2 (JN.1), Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and Measles Continue to Rise

Dinah V. Parums

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943911

Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e943911


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750