25 June 2003
Med Sci Monit 2003; 9(6): RA111-119 :: ID: 12896
Archival reports demonstrate that black females are in the minority of reported breast cancer cases, yet are given a significantly poorer prognosis than their white counterparts. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to explain this discrepancy. In the past, socio-economic variables such as economic status and access to adequate health care have been the focus of attention. More recently there has been a shift to understanding the racial differences in genotype, as well as hormones related to tumor growth. In the present report, we explore the effects of increased estrogen levels as a precursor to the detrimental effects of breast cancer in African American women when compared to Caucasian women. Furthermore we will explore the effects of increased estrogen levels on the apoptotic events of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins. We conclude with a discussion regarding the antagonistic behavior of varying isoforms of estrogen receptors, and their relationship to nitric oxide (NO) as a free radical. The main focus of this paper is to address the many carcinogenic pathways that are instigated by estrogen and those which may be linked to obesity. By determining the relative concentration of estrogen and related proteins within black and white populations we hope to better understand the above mentioned disparity.
Keywords: African Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data, Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology, Continental Population Groups, Estrogens - blood, Estrogens - physiology, Nitric Oxide - physiology, Receptors, Estrogen - analysis, Risk Factors, United States - epidemiology
01 March 2024 : EditorialEditorial: First Regulatory Approvals for CRISPR-Cas9 Therapeutic Gene Editing for Sickle Cell Disease and Transfusion-Dependent β-Thalassemia
Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e944204
23 Feb 2024 : Clinical ResearchEarly Mobilization in Pediatric Critical Care: Exploring the Gap Between Theory and Practice in Saudi Arabia
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942467
01 Feb 2024 : Review articleEnhancing Patient Adherence to Newly-Prescribed Medicine for Chronic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review and C...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.942923
10 Jan 2024 : Clinical ResearchEfficacy of Bakri Intrauterine Balloon in Managing Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Comparative Analysis of Vaginal...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.943072
Most Viewed Current Articles
16 May 2023 : Clinical ResearchElectrophysiological Testing for an Auditory Processing Disorder and Reading Performance in 54 School Stude...
Med Sci Monit 2023; 29:e940387
17 Jan 2024 : Review articleVaccination Guidelines for Pregnant Women: Addressing COVID-19 and the Omicron Variant
Med Sci Monit 2024; 30:e942799
14 Dec 2022 : Clinical ResearchPrevalence and Variability of Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E in Patients with Elevated Tryptase Levels
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937990