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01 April 2005 : Review article  

Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis using enzyme immunoanalysis

Zuzana Cermakova, Olga Ryskova, Karel Honegr, Eva Cermakova, Irena Hanovcova

Med Sci Monit 2005; 11(4): BR121-125 :: ID: 15872

Abstract

Background:Antiborrelia antibodies in Lyme borreliosis (LB) are mostly detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), confirmed by immunoblot (the “two-step system”). In indicated cases, direct evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi is obtained with the PCR method, electron microscopy and cultivation. The “one-step system” of testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in LB is economically preferably, but it requires an EIA kit with more than 90% sensitivity and specificity.Material/Methods:90 blood samples were collected, 54 from patients with clinically defined LB and 36 samples from individuals free of LB. IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi were detected in parallel with five different EIA kits from various producers. The results were verified clinically in all cases, in disputable cases with additional immunoblot (BAG-Med), and analyzed statistically.Results:Specificity and sensitivity were calculated from the measured values, and diagnostic efficiency was determined for each EIA kit. EIA kits for antiborrelia antibody assay with high specificity have low sensitivity and vice versa. In 9 samples from patients with clinical diagnoses (multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis) we found false positives in EIA and WB tests.Conclusions:The best results for a “one-step system” of examinations for antiborrelia antibodies were obtained with the Abbot and Euroimmun EIA kits in our set. A “two-step system” of serological examination could be composed from the basic IgM and IgG examination with a high sensitivity EIA kit (Viroimmun, Test-Line) followed with confirmation of positives by specific immunoblot.

Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi - ultrastructure, Lyme Disease - enzymology, Borrelia burgdorferi - ultrastructure, Cross Reactions, Diagnosis, Differential, Immunoenzyme Techniques, Immunoglobulin M - blood, Lyme Disease - immunology, Reagent Kits, Diagnostic, Reproducibility of Results, Sensitivity and Specificity

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Editorial

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Dinah V. Parums
Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937676

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750