Logo Medical Science Monitor

Call: +1.631.470.9640
Mon - Fri 10:00 am - 02:00 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor Logo Medical Science Monitor

22 December 2006

Targets for antiepileptic drugs in the synapse

Cecilie Johannessen Landmark

Med Sci Monit 2007; 13(1): RA1-7 :: ID: 470154

Abstract

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many proposed mechanisms of action and are still not fully understood. AEDs are widely used today to treat epilepsy, migraine, neuropathic pain, and bipolar disorder, and other disorders are also being investigated. The focus in this review is the main targets for AEDs in the GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses and possible future sites of action for
AEDs to clarify their wide spectrum of activity. The study is a review of recently published investigations of the mechanisms of action of AEDs.
The main targets for AEDs in the synapses include enhancement of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission, decrease in glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission directly or via inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels, and interference with intracellular signaling pathways. Vigabatrin, tiagabine, and valproate possess their main actions in the GABAergic synapse. Levetiracetam, topiramate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, felbamate, and zonisamide decrease glutamatergic excitability. In addition, valproate, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine modulate intracellular signaling pathways. Several AEDs of a new generation based on the existing drugs are in development. Future targets to decrease excitability may include GABA and glutamate ionotropic and metabotropic receptors and astrocytes. Knowledge of the sites of action of AEDs in the synapse is important to improve our understanding
of their broad spectrum of clinical effi cacy and to develop future effective drugs for the treatment of both epilepsy and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Keywords: Glutamic Acid - metabolism, Anticonvulsants - pharmacology, Synapses - metabolism, gamma-Aminobutyric Acid - metabolism

0 Comments

Editorial

15 August 2022 : Editorial  

Editorial: The Metabolic (Dysfunction) Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)-Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Debate: A Forced Consensus and The Risk of a World Divide

Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Ming-Hua Zheng, Takumi Kawaguchi, Shiv K. Sarin
Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation and Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.938080

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e938080

In Press

12 Aug 2022 : Clinical Research  

Risk Factors and Pathogen Spectrum in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis: A S...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937112  

11 Aug 2022 : Meta-Analysis  

Optimal Surgical Treatment Method for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: Results from a Network Meta-Analysis

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937118  

10 Aug 2022 : Review article  

Programmed Cell Death in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Review of Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Necroptosis

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937766  

10 Aug 2022 : Database Analysis  

Use and Effects of Augmentation of Labor with Oxytocin: A Single-Center, Retrospective, Case-Control Study ...

Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937557  

Most Viewed Current Articles

30 Dec 2021 : Clinical Research  

Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.935379

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379

13 Nov 2021 : Clinical Research  

Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.932788

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e932788

08 Mar 2022 : Review article  

A Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...

DOI :10.12659/MSM.936292

Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292

01 Nov 2020 : Review article  

Long-Term Respiratory and Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19

DOI :10.12659/MSM.928996

Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e928996

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750