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01 January 1999

Hypolipemic diet effect on lipoprotein profile in patients with hypercholesterolaemia and mixed hyperlipidaemia in relation to apo E phenotype

Longina Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Grażyna Nowicka, Agnieszka Grzybek, Barbara Grzybowska, Janina Paluszkiewicz, Julita Szonert, Lucyna Pachocka, Elżbieta Murakowska, Irena Stolarska

Med Sci Monit 1999; 5(1): CR62-70 :: ID: 505223

Abstract

The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a hypolipaemic diet on serum lipoproteins and apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) in relation to the apo E phenotype. Material and methods: Subjects were drawn from the Outpatient Clinic of Metabolic Diseases. From 210 patients enrolled to the study, 188 completed it. In studied group the frequency of various apo E phenotypes was: apo E2/2 - 1.1%, apo E2/3 - 10.6%, E 2/4 - 3.2%, E3/3- 66.5%, E3/4 - 15.9% and E4/4 - 2.7%. The diet of patients was composed of reduced content of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Results: The daily energy consumption decreased from 7853 kJ (1877 kcal) to 5954 kJ (1423 kcal). Total fat intake declined from 35.3% to 32.3%, saturated fatty acids from 11.3% to 9.7%, and cholesterol from 297mg to 173 mg daily. The mean reduction of serum total cholesterol was 9.5% (p<0.001) and LDL cholesterol was 9.2% (p<0.001), and triglycerides - 18.2% (p<0.001) as well as apo B - 4.1% (p<0.05). No significant changes were noted in HDL cholesterol and Lp(a) concentrations. Patients with phenotype E2/4 (20.3%, p<0.05) and E 4/4 (14.4%, p<0.05) evaluated the most significant decrease of cholesterol serum concentrations. Similar trends were noted in the changes of LDL cholesterol. Patients with phenotypes apo E4/4 (33.8%, p<0.05) and E3/3 (18.3%, p<0.001) evaluated the most significant decrease of triglycerides serum concentrations. No association between apo E phenotype and changes in HDL cholesterol and Lp(a) concentrations was found. Conclusion: Our results reveal that patients with E4 allele respond slightly better to hypolipaemic diet than patients with E3 and E2 allele, however the differences are not statistically significant.

Keywords: coronary risk factors, Patients, Lipoproteins, Lipoproteins, phenotype apo E, hypolipaemic diet

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