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27 October 2008

Coagulation and fibrinolysis variables in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Agata BroniszABCDEFG, Danuta RoscACDEG, Marek BroniszCDEF, Wieslaw SzymanskiB, Roman JunikG

Med Sci Monit 2008; 14(11): CR574-579 :: ID: 869445

Abstract

Background
Many studies have reported changes in the hemostatic system in patients with type 1 diabetes in whom coagulation processes predominate over fibrinolytic activity. The aim of this study was to assess some of the hemostatic variables during pregnancy women with in type 1 diabetes.
Material and Method
The current study included 31 pregnant diabetic women and 24 healthy pregnant women. At 12, 24, and 36 weeks of gestation, we determined blood concentrations of the following: platelet count, fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.
Results
When we compared pregnant diabetic women in the third trimester with those in the first trimester, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the platelet count (172.0+/-9.0 vs 200.6+/-9.8 G/L, P<0.05) and a statistically significant increase in the levels of fibrinogen (3.5+/-0.2 vs 2.9+/-0.2 g/L, P<0.05), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (14.9+/-2.2 vs 4.7+/-0.6 ng/mL, P<0.001), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (17.2+/-2.8 vs 4.0+/-1.0 IU/mL, P<0.001). Similar fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator: A, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 changes were observed in pregnant women (3.8+/-0.3 vs 2.9+/-0.2 g/L, P<0.05; 7.7+/-0.9 vs 5.2+/-0.3 ng/mL, P<0.05; and 17.6+/-2.1 vs 5.1+/-1.1 IU/mL, P<0.05, respectively). Tissue plasminogen activator antigen was the only variable to significantly increase during the third trimester in pregnant diabetic women with microangiopathy compared with women without microangiopathy (21.0+/-3.2 vs 8.4+/-1.7 ng/mL, P<0.01).
Conclusions
(1) In patients with type 1 diabetes without microangiopathy and with good metabolic control, fibrinogen and tissue plasminogen activator antigen concentrations and changes in the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are similar to those found in patients with a normal pregnancy; (2) the marked decrease in platelet count in patients with type 1 diabetes during pregnancy may be an additional source of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; and (3) during pregnancy, diabetic microangiopathy leads to a greater increase of tissue plasminogen activator antigen concentration as a marker of endothelial cell injury.

Keywords: Tissue Plasminogen Activator - blood, Platelet Count, Pregnancy, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 - blood, Fibrinolysis, Fibrinogen - metabolism, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - pathology, Blood Coagulation

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750