25 June 2010
Med Sci Monit 2010; 16(7): RA147-162 :: ID: 880919
Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide, identified in the stomach of rats and humans, in 1999. It is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) that strongly stimulates release of growth hormone at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. In humans, ghrelin exerts a variety of different endocrine and paracrine actions; from increasing food intake (orexigenic effect) to modulating energy homeostasis. It has been proved that ghrelin affects bone metabolism acting by an autocrine/paracrine mode, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. Recently, ghrelin was identified in osteoblasts, stimulating proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Its expression also was confirmed in rat and human cartilage, being prevalently localized in the proliferative and maturative zone of the epiphyseal growth plate (which further supports the hypothesis of ghrelin’s action as a growth factor for chondrocytes). Ghrelin also inhibits prostaglandin and/or leukotriene synthesis. Lately, ghrelin promotes osteogenesis of intramembranous bone and improves the repair of calvarial bone defect in rats in vivo. This review summarizes the effects of ghrelin on bone and cartilage metabolism, analyzes its direct and indirect actions on bone cells, and presents the clinical implication for its use.
Keywords: Ghrelin - metabolism, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I - metabolism, Clinical Trials as Topic, Cartilage - metabolism, Bone and Bones - metabolism, Receptors, Ghrelin - metabolism
01 July 2022 : EditorialEditorial: World Health Organization (WHO) Variants of Concern Lineages Under Monitoring (VOC-LUM) in Response to the Global Spread of Lineages and Sublineages of Omicron, or B.1.1.529, SARS-CoV-2
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937676
27 June 2022 : Clinical ResearchShoulder Injury Related to Vaccine Administration (SIRVA) in 16 Patients Following COVID-19 Vaccination Who...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937430
04 June 2022 : Clinical ResearchScreening for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Students at the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland Between November...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936962
30 May 2022 : Clinical ResearchEffects of Wearing Face Masks on Exercise Capacity and Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold in Healthy Subjects ...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936069
01 Jul 2022 : Clinical ResearchDoes Early-Period Patient Dissatisfaction Turn Into Satisfaction Over Time After Total Knee Replacement?
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936792
30 Jun 2022 : Laboratory ResearchBcl-2 19-kDa Interacting Protein 3 (BNIP3)-Mediated Mitophagy Attenuates Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Human...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936760
30 Jun 2022 : Clinical ResearchAntioxidant System and Ions Concentrations After Femoral Neck and Resurfacing Hip Arthroplasty
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936335
Most Viewed Current Articles
30 Dec 2021 : Clinical ResearchRetrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379
08 Mar 2022 : Review articleA Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292
01 Nov 2020 : Review articleLong-Term Respiratory and Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19
Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e928996