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21 January 2016 : Review article  

Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoblasts and Adipocytes and its Role in Treatment of Osteoporosis

Cheng WangACE, Haoye MengB, Xin WangDF, Chenyang ZhaoF, Jiang PengA, Yu WangA

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.897044

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:226-233

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic bone disorder characterized by a decrease in bone mass and degradation of the bone microstructure, leaving bones that are fragile and prone to fracture. Most osteoporosis treatments improve symptoms, but to date there is no quick and effective therapy. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have pluripotent potential. In adults, BMMSCs differentiate mainly into osteoblasts and adipocytes in the skeleton. However, if this differentiation is unbalanced, it may lead to a decrease in bone mass. If the number of adipocyte cells increases and that of osteoblast cells decreases, osteoporosis can result. A variety of hormones and cytokines play an important role in the regulation of BMMSCs bidirectional differentiation. Therefore, a greater understanding of the regulation mechanism of BMMSC differentiation may provide new methods to prevent and treat osteoporosis. In addition, autologous, allogeneic BMMSCs or genetically modified BMMSC transplantation can effectively increase bone mass and density, increase bone mechanical strength, correct the imbalance in bone metabolism, and increase bone formation, and is expected to provide a new strategy and method for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Keywords: Bone Marrow Cells - cytology, Adipocytes - cytology, Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells - cytology, Osteoblasts - cytology, Osteoporosis - therapy

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750